Place of the Waqf in
Turkish Cultural System
Prof. Dr. Bahaeddin YEDİYILDIZ
Hacettepe University, Ankara
(English translation by
R. Acun and M. Oz)
This paper has been
Habitat II, 12 April 1996, Istanbul.
"The best of waqf is to
which people are in need of most."
Omer Hilmi, Ithafu'l-ahlaf fi
ahkami'l-evkaf, Istanbul, 1307, p.15.
One of the important
movements which shaped the course of the world history is the
Renaissance. In the literature, the Renaissance is viewed differently.
In one view, the Renaissance is considered as a rebirth of the Antiquity
and is completly disassociated from the Middle Ages. The second view,
which appeard as a reaction to this view with Romanticism in the 19th
century, claims that all the developmets of the Renaissance had their
seeds in the Middle Ages. Critising both views, V.-L. Saulnier notes the
necessity to acknowledge the superior qualities of both the Antiquity
and the Middle Ages, and the impossibility of denying the fact that the
Renaissance had gained from the civilisations of both of these periods.
When listing the distinquishing properties of the Renaissance, he draws
attention to its influence on the enjoyment of the return to sources, on
the encouragement of the personal effort, on the comprehension and
spread of these wills through literary means and on the creation of
masterpieces. He also points out the Renaissance's character, which was
a result of returning to sources, as a search for a balance in cultureůa
balance between past and present, between nature and divine values in
determining human behaviour, between art and conception of the world,
between direct observation of the reality and claims about its symbolic
interpretation, and between authority and the right to criticise(1) .
Have these balances
been achieved or have they been lost again? Today's world is in search
of peace and tranquility. There is a search for a sustained social and
economic development, the preservation of natural enviroment, an
attainment of better standards of life, an improvoment of human rights,
the conditions of a healthy and secure life in which everybody can have
easy access to basic puplic services, and finally a global cooperation
not to remove cultural differences and identities. While defending the
basic rights and freedoms of the individual, he/she is also reminded of
his/her responsibilities towards the rights of the future generations.
Eveyone is expected to contribute to collective prosperity; institutions
of civil society, the agents of private and puplic sector are all
required to behave responsibly towards society.
These means that the
Renaissance's above mentioned searches for the balances are are again on
the agenda today. But this time Europe is not alone; all the world is in
search. It can be argued, however, that today humanity is in a better
position to achieve these balances, because there is a richer heritage
of historical experience. There is a need to understand this heritage by
analising it first, without copying or destroying any part of it, and
then putting the findings to the use of humanity in new syntheses(2) .
For example, it can be said that the Turkish waqf applications of the
Seljukid and Ottoman periods and the conception of man and life
underpinning them can contribute to the search of today's humanity for a
peaceful and tranquil environment. For, the Turkish civilisation of the
Seljukid and Ottoman periods came into being as a consequence of the
fact that the cultural elements inherited by the Turks over these large
areas were brought together in a new synthesis by a new spirit and
This synthesis is one
which does not destroy the ancient cultural elements; on the contrary,
it does not harm the originality and identity of the dynamic culture
which uses them. Just like Racine's tragedies. In these tragedies, every
phrase or even every word was taken from a Greek or a Latin. One comes
from Tragiqueses, the other from Virgile. But the parts and fragments
were composed as a new system and this system is completely different
from the older ones. The new synthesis has a different meaning from the
contributions of the Latin or Greek predecessors(3).
It is possibble to find
thousands of examples of this synthesis in Anatolian Turkish culture. As
is known, the Turks who had begun to settle in Anatolia from the second
half of the 11th century have created a number of political entities.
The greatest of them are the Anatolian Seljukids, The Ottoman Empire and
The Republic of Turkey. There were also principalities (beyliks),
founded before and after the Seljukids. Even those without any political
and military significance had been famous for creating new cultural
syntheses, just as the ones metioned above, by making the best possible
use of the cultural heritage they had inherited and also by benefitting
from the neighbouring cultures, thanks to the waqf institutions they had
established. For example, the waqf complex consisting of a hospital (darussifa)
and a mosque, founded by Ahmed Shah and Turan Melek during the Mengujeks'
time between 1228 and 1231, is a product of such a synthesis. Indeed in
this complex, one can find a unique sythesis with fine (plastic) effects,
which can hardly be seen in any other Near Eastern works of art, of
Sasanid art, Gaznavid art, animal styles of the steps, Iranian Seljukids'
plaster of Paris decoration, and the Near Eastern wooden work, re-
interpreted using stone material and realised by applying an admirable
technique. The twin headed falcon on the crown door of this wakf mosque,
which was the totem of the family of the wafq's founder Ahmed Shah, had
also its place in this sytnhesis.
The pulpit (minber) in
the mosque of this complex, which was founded to provide the public with
religious and health services and was allocated continious revenue
sources, constitutes a masterpiece example of wooden engraving. Beyond
being aesthetically pleasing, these engravings facilitated the
imprinting of a meaning which gave vitality to the waqf culture on a
wooden pulpit. Indeed, these engravings on the Ulu Camii's wooden pulpit,
speaks to its audience seven and a half centuries deep from the past
like this: "the good deeds (sevab) of a person who does the following do
not stop and continue after his death: teaching knowledge, bringing
water (to settlements), diging a well, planting fruit trees, building a
(small) mosque, leaving behind a copy of the Koran, and upbringing a
child who prays God for the forgiveness of his mother and father".
The main factor which
leads to a fusion of the elements taken from various cultures by means
of their re-intepretation, and to the creation of a new synthesis is a
combination of the values expressed in these words of the Prophet of
Islam: learning and disseminating knowledge, meeting public's need for
water, afforestation, building mosques, writing books and making sure
that they pass from generation to generation, praying God for the
forgiveness of one's mother and father i.e being respectfull towards
These values contained
in the Prophet's words cited above controlled and directed Turkish
cultural system during the Seljukid and Ottoman centuries.
Transformation of many of these values, which will be examined in detail
later in this paper, into usable forms in muslim Turkish societies was
possible through waqfs.
What then is a waqf?
Waqf is a social, legal
and religious institution which played an important role in social,
cultural and economic of life of the Islamic world, especially the
turkic world of the Seljukid and Ottoman period, from middle of the 8th
century until the end of the 19th .
If a person, with the
intention of pleasing God, dedicates forever the movable or immovable
properties he owns with a view to provide religious, charitable or
social services in order to meet the needs of people, he creates a waqf
institution. Behind this action there is no force or obligation of any
kind but a sense of individual responsibility towards humanity, a
conscientious sense of serving others, in other words, such cultural
values as goodness, compassion, mutual assistance, solidarity, the
pleasure of comforting a living thing both materially and spiritually,
and the free will of a person embracing these values as principles. Thus
the Islamic waqf can be defined as an action of a member of a muslim
society motivated by an element of the Islamic culture to transform some
or all of his personal assetts into pious foundations which will serve
the public. The waqf, a product of this action, that is a process in
which these values become concrete, has evolved into a form capable of
effecting all the aspects of social, cultural and economic life in some
periods in Islamic societies. For example, "thanks to the waqfs
florished during the Ottoman Empire, a person would have borned into a
waqf house, slept in a waqf craddle, ate and drunk from waqf properties,
read waqf books, taught in a waqf school, received his salary from a
waqf administration, and when he died, put into a waqf coffin and buried
in a waqf cemetary"(4).
There are two componets
of the Islamic waqf: hayrat and akarat. The hayrat are the buildings and
institutions dedicated to the use of public.The akarat are the revenue
sources allocated to enable these intitutions to live forever and to
serve the public. The document which describes these two components of a
waqf and determines the principles related to the running of the revenue
sources and realisation of the services aimed for is called the waqfiye
(deed). In the Archive of General Directorate of Waqfs, there are 26
thousands of wakqfiyes and similar documents from the Seljukid and
Ottoman periods.These documents contain data related to the
understanding of waqf founders about humanity and the world, and their
reasons for establishing waqfs. Using these documents, therefore, it is
possible to discern the elements of the cultural system which gave
vitality to waqf institutions. According to the Islamic law, to be able
to dedicate a propety to a waqf it must be under the absolute ownership
of the waqf's founder. In the Islamic theory, earning and owning a
property is closely related to the human effort and work.For this reason,
the waqf founders declare insistently that the property which they plan
to dedicate are truely their own and that they are the product of their
own effort by referring to a verse(ayat) in the Koran(5),that says "that
man can have nothing but what he strives for", and to a hadith of the
Prophet of Islam, stating that "He who invigorates a dead soil owns it".
These words emphasizes the importance and the value of the individual
effort and the responsibility of human beings.
As to the dedicating
some or all of properties earned by hard work, in the waqfiyes of the
waqfs established by the Turks from the Balkans to Turkistan, there are
references to the Koranic verses which contain concepts such as "to lend
willingly"(6), "to spent (infak) in the cause of Allah (fi sebillilah)"(7)
, "to spend of your substance out of love for Him for your kin, for
orphans, for the needy"(8), "to feed the poor"(9), "to give out for
charity"(10), and especially "to compete in building hayrat,"(11).
It can be suggested
that if some of these concepts, which move and direct man and society,
are analysed within their context, the issue will become clearer. For
example, the whole of one of the verses in which the concept of hayrat
occurs is the following: "Of the people of the Book are a portion that
stand (for the right); they rehearse the signs of Allah all night and
then prostrate themselves in adoration; they believe in Allah and the
Last Day; they enjoin what is wright and forbid what is wrong; and they
compete in ( all) hayrat; they are in the ranks of the rightheous."(12).
In the Turkish waqf
literature, one of the frequently used words is meberrat . It means the
institutions established for the benefit of humanity in order to please
God and, in a way, is synoymous with hayrat. The origin of meberrat is
the arabic word birr which means all kind of good deeds, and in one of
the ayats cited frequently in waqfiyyes it is described as followis: "It
is not birr (rightheousness) that ye turn your faces towards East or
West; but it is birr to believe in Allah and the Last Day and the Angels
and the Book and the messengers; to spend of your substance out of love
for Him for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for
those who ask for the ransom of slaves; to steadfast in prayer and
practice regular charity; to fulfil the contracts which ye have made;
and to be firm and patient in pain (or suffering) and adversity and
throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth,the Allah-fearing"(13).
Another ayat cited
frequenly in waqfiyyes is this: "there is a goal and a behaviour which
each person and people turns to. May you strive for building hayrat and
compete in doing this"(14).
It is precisely these
and a number of similar other principles that gave direction to the
Turkish humanism. As is known, in the Ottoman literature, the terms
hayrat and muberrat or muessesat-i hayriye (charitable institutions) are
used to mean the waqf buildings and organisations established to provide
society and all the human beings with free service.
When interpreting the
concept of hayrat in the Koran, the Seyhulislam of the Suleyman the
Lawgiver, Ebussuud, says that it covers all the activities and works
that lead to happiness in both worlds(15). One Ottoman jurist describes
the term muessesat-i hayriye (charitable institutions) as "all the
buildings and organisations such as places of worship, universities (medaris),
schools, kitchens distributing food to the poor, schools for teaching
the Koran, dervish hospices, libraries, guest houses, houses for the
poor, bridges, hospitals, public fountains, pools and cemetaries, built
and dedicated by ashab-i hayr "(16).
Here we encounter
another concept, ashab-i hayr , meaning benovelent people. This is used
to mean the people who built and created the mentioned buildings and
organisatios, in other words, those who are working towards providing
almost all the services, which a modern state has to provide to its
citizens, using their own private properties and waqfs, by establishing
multi- functional institutions. Each one of these persons was also
called sahibu'l-hayrat, sahibu'l-hayrat ve'l-hasenat and sahibu'l-hayrat
ve'l-meberrat . Here the terms hasenat and meberrat were used as a
synonimous with hayrat. Some of these persons who have met the needs of
the people with their good works were called Ebu'l-hayrat that is the
father of hayrat. Murad II is an example of them.
To understand the
reason why Murad II was called Ebu'l-hayrat and to comprehend how hayrat
constitutes a complete system, it is sufficient to see how he re-built
Ergene. This event is described in Tacu't- Tevarih as follows:
"It is being said that the place in which Ergene bridge now stands was
covered by a thick forest, many parts were boggy, and thickly wooded
parts were hiding places for brigands. These brigands hiding in the
forest would waylay travellers and would kill many innocent people for
nothing. Not a single day would pass in this dreadful and dangerous
place without many helpless people being cut into pieces with swords of
cruelty. For this reason the sultan who took a bright way, cleared the
area first by removing spikes of anxiety from the road of cruelty by
spending a lot of money. He cleared and organised the place so that
people can stay for the night. He built a bridge spannig over a hundred
and seventy for arches, which become an example for the world. Next to
the bridge he built a nice town called Ergene and decorated it with
mosques, hospices etc. He thus enabled the travellers to utilize the
prosperous town. When the building of the mentioned hospice was
completed, he invited the learned men and poor people from Edirne to
this town and ordered a feast to be held. He distributed the first meal
with his own hands, accustomed to be kind. He showed kindness and gave a
lot of gifts to learned and mature persons. He even enligthened the
souls of people attending the ceremony with the light of kindness,
generosity and justice by litting canddles of the mosque by his own
hands. He gave a valuble honorific robe together with many presents to
the architect of all these buildings. On the other side of the bridge he
built a large dome and transformed there into a village and he exempted
all the people inhabiting either the town or the village from
extraordinary taxes"(17). P>When the social and cultural history of the
Seljukid and Ottoman periods is examined, it can be observed at once
that, thanks to the these fathers of hayrat, waqf institutions provided
many social services which, according to the modern view of state, had
the character of public services. Indeed, constructing infrastructures
such as roads, bridges and irrigation systems; welfare services such as
building hospitals and caring for the poor and needy; educational and
cultural services such as opening schools, libraries and universities,
providing grants to the students and paying salaries of teachers;
religious services such as constructing mosques and paying the salaries
of the men of the religion were all undertaken by the waqfs.
The research shows that
during the Seljukid and Ottoman periods, thousands of people, without
expecting any personal interest, founded thousands of institutions with
their own propety and money in the areas of services mentioned above,
and allocated some or all his private properties such as farms, houses,
enterprises and savings as revenue sources to these institutions to
ensure their continious running. According to some calculations, the
total budget of waqfs reached to one third of the state budget in
Ottoman State where in each of some three hundred administrative units
called sanjak, there were around a thousand waqfs. This means that the
person who adopted the values indicated above, without facing compulsion,
willingly transferred resources, as much as a third of the state budget,
from their own properties to the public services.
Indeed, by means of
these institutions many personalities made concrete the principle of
compassion by establishing hayrat to provide services for the other
members of the society. They obtained property through legitimate ways
and working, but ,by transferring the amounts above their need to public
services,they realised the social justice. Through this way the
principles of brotherhood and cooperation found 0application area.
Besides, the institution of waqf has become a symbol of tolerance by
providing services to everybody in need irrespective of language,
religion or race.
Thanks to the
institution of waqf, which is seen to have been effective in all the
sections of the society, in other words, in all layers of the culture,
personal wealths turned into mosques which appeared as religious, social,
cultural and even political centers in many of the Turkish villages and
towns. And around some of these mosques they turned into a university, a
hospice, a fountain, a library, a hospital and smilar institutions, thus
forming the complexes. As the harmony of buildings, services and social
organisations, numerous complexes from the Ishak Pasha complex in
Dogubayezid to the Selimiye complex in Edirne, from the Ulu Cami complex
in Sinop to the Sokullu complex in Hatay (Payas) thousands of them
spread all over Turkey. It becomes the Yesil (Green) in Bursa, the Ahmet
Dede in Kastamonu, the Bayezid II in Manisa, the Fatih or Suleymaniye in
Istanbul... This is a true movement of civilisation.
Through waqfs, personal
wealths have become thousands of villages, hundreds of towns, road
connecting the towns and caravanseraies on these roads. Even in the 18th
Century, when the waqfs of Damad Ibrahim Pasha were converting the
Muskara village into "Nevsehir", those of Besir Agha laid the foundation
of a town, Sulina, on the Sunne strait, within of borders of the present-day
Romania . It is not possible to think of an Anatolian town which, after
removing the waqfs organisations from there, can still be called a "Turkish
town" even simply a "town". For example, let us think for a moment that
Hudavendigar, Muradiye, Yildirim, Emir Sultan, Ulu, Yesil, Ali Pasha,
Tuzpazar, Azapbey and Orhangazi mosques and the other buildings
complementing these mosques have dissapeared, what will remain of Bursa
which made it Bursa?.. May be only a green nature. The same applies to
all the towns from Kars to Edirne.
Only in Turkey, the
number of these buldings surviving until today is around seven thousands.
There were more than thirty thousands of mosques before 1917 wiithin the
borders of the now collapsed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The
number of universities (medrese) in Cecenistan were 800, and in
Azerbaycan were 786(18).
In 1879 there were 131
waqfs only in Cyprus. Eighty-seven of them were schools and universities,
9 were hospices, 3 were public fountains, and 2 were tomb waqfs. The
remaining 22 consisted of large waqf complexes founded by Sultan Selim
II and the other statesmen of the Ottoman period, such as Lala Mustafa
Pasha, Grand Vezir Abdullah Pasha, Ebubekir Pasha, Sinan Pasha, Arab
Ahmed Pasha and Ferhad Pasha(19).
According to the
findings of Ayverdi, there were 3339 Turkish waqf hayrats in Bulgaria in
1982. Of these 2356 were small and large mosques, 142 universities, 273
bridges, 16 caravanseraies and the rest consisting of hayrat such as
bath (hamam), tomb, fortress, public fountain, library etc.(20).
A Dutch orientalist, M.
Kiel, in his work on a Turkish waqf, Kidemli Baha Sultan Hospice
(tekke), says that "this piece of land in the south-west corner of
modern Bulgaria, were deserted during the Bulgarian Empire. The fifty
kilometers long strip between Filibe and Edirne was too difficult to
live on...The country which had not seen peace until then, reached peace
only after the Turkish conquest... Large investment were made to re-build
the deserted country which needed regeneration."(21) And all these
investments were realised by means of waqfs.
Of course, these
numbers which serve only to the purpose of providing examples, are less
than sufficient to express all the Turkish waqfs in those regions
mentioned. However, a historical analysis of only surviving waqfs is
sufficient to show clearly the role played by waqfs in Turkish culture.
For example, in almost all the Ottoman towns the Ottoman complexes,
consisting of the organisations such as schools, universities, public
fountains, libraries, hospitals, hospices etc. clustered around the
central mosque, are not only places of worship, teaching and learnig,
and kitchens foor the poor but also they also played the role of social
catalyst because they led to other gatherings around them. During meal
times the teachers and students of a university were meeting the other
employees of the complex, the poor from around, and the travellers. And
five times a day in the mosques, they were together with a large section
of the town people apart from the ones mentioned above.The mosque,
situated in the center of the complex, and other mosques of the town
were the doors, conference halls, of the university (medrese) opening to
the public. The knowledge obtained and produced at the university was
being disseminated through these halls. The other mosques in various
parts of the country were functioning in the same way. As is known,
every year students would take three mounts off and go to various parts
of the country to disseminate through mosques the knowledge they learned
at the university. Thus, though not everybody would find the oppurtunity
to attend a university, a common culture were being created thanks to
the continious education in the complexes. The people, who were adopting
the same values and norms through these waqf complexes, were acquiring a
common identity, thus broadening the social integration(22).
The towns, formed and
developed around the waqf complexes were connected together with the
waqf roads and bridges. The caravanseraies in every place of rest on
these road systems may be considered as one of the most civilised and
humane institutions ever developed in the world. One of these is the
waqf caravanserai founded by Celaledin Karatay, a Seljukid Vezir, nearby
Kayseri in the 13th century. This great work of art is still standing.
This caravanserai was part of a chain of caravanseraies which ensured
the vitality of the transportation system. According to the traveller's
accounts this caravanserai had summer pavillions and winter sections. It
was possible to find here every thing in every seasons. The kitchen of
the caravanserai was equipped with kitchen tools, and the hospital in it
was equipped with a set of bed linen. All kinds of medicines that might
be looked for could be found in the hospital. The bath (hamam) was
always open. There were also places to shelter the travellers' animals.
In the caravanserai there were a lot of employees whose salaries were
paid by the waqf. Food was provided equally for all the travellers (Muslims,
non-Muslims, slaves, free persons) staying in the caravanserai. If
necessary the traveller's shoes were being repaired and new shoes were
being given to those with no shoes. All care for animals including
shoing the horses was free of charge. A veterinary surgeon was employed
to cure sick animals.
After examination, the
sick travellers would be given the necessary medicines and the treatment.
No patient would be allowed to go on his way unless he was cured
completely. If a death occured, the corpse would besent to his final
resting place also using the waqf's means(23).
During the Seljukid and
Ottoman centuries Anatolia and Rumelia were filled with this kind of
waqf institutions or hayrat, established by such men as Celaleddin
Karatay, who, though earning much through hard-working, did not fall
captive to material things and wealth and eternised their wealth by
offering it to socio- economic services for humanity, since it had been
their belief that this world is tempory. On those routes of
transportation lacking caravanseraies , there were dervish hospices and
guest houses taht served the same function. Samuel ben David Yemsel, who
travelled with three friends in 67 days from Egypt to Istanbul in the
years 1641-42, wrote that they found an inn or caravanserai every night
along their way, and were accomodated in guest rooms reserved for
travellers except for the two samll towns which did not have any inn or
The Turkish waqf spirit
which cares for all living beings, and not only for the people, has
extended its reach to birds as well , when from the 15th century on,
kiosks for birds started to be built. Some of these "bird houses", also
called "bird palaces", resemble the sultanic mosques with their minarets,
high-hooped towers and signs in the form of crescent, and display and
extraordinary workmanship. Having observed such bird houses with great
interest, the Austrian ambassador Busbecq wrote in 1550s that "in Turkey
everything has become humanised and every rigid thing has been softened.
Even the animals"(25).
and of this love, there was a system of belief. Those philanthrophists
founding charitable institutions during the Seljukid and Ottoman
centuries believed that this world was e temporary guest house, but it
was necessary to work hard and to spend one's earnings for the happiness
of other people in this world in order to secure the felicity of the
eternal life when returned to God. To believe in the temporary nature of
the world would not imply seclusion, indolence or blind submission to
resignation, which have been supposed to be among the reasons for the
decline of the Islamic world. It meant however, earning one's icome
through decent work "with love of ethics", and attaining eternity by
spending one's earnings for the happiness of mankind. This was possible
through freeing oneself from falling captive to material things. This is
a work of love. Yunus Emre, the great poet of the 13th century,
expressed the freedom of man against the matter in these verses:
Neither I rejoice for wealth
Nor poverty grieves me
Your love comfors me
I need you, only you.
Owners of wealth
experienced this freedom themselves, when they devoted their material
possessions for the happiness of others.
Those people who acted
with the kind of love, expressed by Yunus in the verses
I am not here for quarrels
My task concerns love
A friend lives in is heart
I am here to work on
hearts were acting to please others' hearts through the waqfs they
established. This was the goal behind earning through hard work and
spending it for the happiness of the mankind. The waqf was seen as the
best way to realise this aim. Every waqf or hayrat that made the
country prosperous and its people happy was a fruit of love expressed by
During the Seljukid and
Ottoman periods the Turkish society has believed in the concepts of "
good work and making favours for others" and "competing with one another
in charity". It was these concepts that led the was to the birth of the
view of the world and its practical applications stated above, and have
been instrumental in the creation of wakf works and thus created the
Turkish waqf culture based on workand love for mankind.
How can these verses be
interpreted today? How can we benefit from the heritage of the historic
Turkish civilisation of waqf? The forms have changed, are changing and
will continue to change. But the philosophical essence of the question
preserves its vitality and depth. This essence may constitute a ferment
for the cultural balance sought in the Renaissance.
The North African
thinker Lahbabi says that "the work that elevates the human being and
makes him/her the artist of history and the ruler of the world brings
out the civilisation or at least the necessary conditions required for a
humane civilisation. The West has industrialised the world through a
rough and rude work . Now the question is civilising nations through
A re-examination o view
of the world of the likes of Yunus Emre, based on love for mankind and "working
humanly" together with the Turkish heritage of waqf rooted in such
understanding towards bringing some of its elements into the prace once
again may accelerate "civil" movemet in this direction.
(1)The preface written
by V. -L. Saulnier to the book, W. K Ferguson,
la Renaissance dans la Pens»e Historique
(translation by J. Marthy) Payot, Paris 1950, pp. V-XVII. As to how
these syntheses can be made see, B. Yediyildiz, "Kultur ve Yenilesme",
XX/231, (Temmuz, 1982) p. 525- 541.
Berque, L'orient Second, Paris 1970, pp. 42-43.
Medeni hukuk, baslangic ve sahsin hukuku, I. 298, Istanbul 1938.
LIII/39. For the relationship between hayrat and work see B. Yediyildiz,
"Haci Bayram Veli doneminden gunumuze kadar gelen kultur eserleri",
I. Haci Bayram-i Veli Sempozyumu Bildirileri, Published by Ankara
Valiligi Il Kultur Mudurlugu, Ankara 1990, p. 133-143.
LVII/18, LXXIII /20
(6) Koran, II/195,
(7) Koran, II/177
(9) Koran, IV/114.
(10) Koran, II/148,
(12) Koran, II/177
Koran, II/148. For the places in which these ayats occurs in
waqfiyyes see, B. Yediyildiz, Institution du vaqf au XVIII e siecle
en Turquei -etude socio-historique-, Ankara, 1990.
Irsadu'l-akli's-selim ila mezaya'l- kitabi'l-kerim, undated, v. I,
(15) Omer Hilmi
Efendi, Ithafu'l-ahlaf fi ahkami'l-evkaf, Istanbul, 1307, p. 6.
Efendi, Tacu't-Tevarih (simplification by I. Parmaksizoglu),
Ankara 1974, Vol. II, pp.165-166.
(17)B. Yediyildiz, "Islam'da
vakif", Dogusundan Gunumuze Buyuk Islam Tarihi, Istanbul, 1989,
vol. XIV, p. 40.
(18)M. Kemal Dizdar,
"Kibris Evkafi", Milletlerarasi Birinci Kibris Tetkikleri Kongresi,
(14-19 Nisan, 1969) Ankara, 1971, pp. 195-205.
Ayverdi, Avrupa'da Osmanli Mimar” Eserleri, IV, Istanbul 1982, p.
"Bulgaristan'da eski Osmanli mimarisinin bir yapiti", Belleten,
XXXV/137, 1971, pp. 46-47.
a more detailed analysis on this subject see B. Yediyildiz, "Sosyal
teskilatlar butunlugu olarak Osmanli vakif kulliyeleri", Turk Kulturu,
(Mart-Nisan, 1981, No: 219), pp. 262-271.
(22)Osman Turan, "Selcuklu
devri vakfiyeleri III. Celaleddin Karatay ve vakfiyeleri", Belleten,
v. XII/45, Ankara, 1948, s. 53-59.
Lewis, "1641-42'de bir Karayit'in Turkiye Seyahatnamesi", Vakiflar
Dergisi, v. III, pp.97-106.
(24) B. Yediyildiz, "Vakif",
Yeni Turk Ansiklopedisi, v. XI, Istanbul 1985, p.4573.
"Yunus Emre Donemi Turk Vakiflari", VIII. Vakif Haftasi Kitabi,
published by VGM, Ankara 1991, pp.23-28.
Kapalidan Aciga: Milli Kulturler ve Insani Medeniyet,
trans. by B.Yediyildiz, Istanbul 1980, pp.78-79.